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English version

S.N. Fyodorov

Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov
A short biography

Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov, who famed Russian medicine all over the world, was born on 8 August, 1927 in Proskurov (now Khmelnitskyy), Ukraine. Ethnically Russian. His father used to be a Divisional Commander of the Red Army; in 1938 he was subjected to repressions and sentenced to 17 years in concentration camps. After finishing secondary school in 1943 Svyatoslav Fyodorov entered the Yerevan Preparatory Artillery School and then was transferred to the 11 Preparatory School of Air Forces. As the result of an accident in 1945 he had lost one of his feet and wasn’t able to finish his studies.

Fyodorov still had a dream about flights till the rest of his life, but chose a medical career. In 1952 he graduated from Rostov-on-Don Medical Institute (city Rostov-on-Don). In 1958 he defended his candidate's thesis; in 1967 he defended his thesis for a Doctor's degree. He practiced medicine village of Veshenskaya in Rostovskaya Oblast; then in Lysva city, Permskaya Oblast. Since 1958 he headed the Clinical Department at Cheboksary Affiliate of the State Helmholtz Ophthalmology Research Institute. In 1960 he created an artificial lens, and performed its implantation for the first time in USSR. There was a conflict with Director of the Affiliate, after which Svyatoslav Fyodorov was discharged, and his research was announced unscientific. He rehabilitated at his work when the results of the artificial lens implantation were published by A. Agranovsky in the newspaper “Izvestia”. That publication helped to create a Lens Implantation Laboratory.

1961-1967 Fyodorov headed Ophthalmology Department in Arkhangelsky Medical Institute. In 1967 he was transferred to Moscow and headed Ophthalmology Department and Lens Implantation Laboratory of the 3-rd Moscow Medical Institute. In 1967 he took up artificial cornea implantation. In 1973 he developed and performed early glaucoma treatment operation for the first time in the world. Fyodorov’s method of a deep sclerectomy was internationally accepted and became customary glaucoma treatment all over the world.

In 1974 Svyatoslav Fyodorov’s Laboratory detached from Institute. The same year Fyodorov performed first operations according to developed method of myopia correction by making front measured incisions on cornea. This revolutionary method was widely used later in Fyodorov’s Clinic, its Branches and abroad. Altogether this method helped more than 3,000 000 people to improve their sight.

In 1979 Eye Microsurgery Institute headed by Svyatoslav Fyodorov was created on the basis of Laboratory. He started realization of those new management and organization technologies which made him not less famous than his scientific discoveries. Among innovations there were a medical surgical conveyor (operation was performed by several surgeons, each one was responsible for his own part of the operation, and the final stage of the operation was performed by the most experienced surgeon); a mobile operating room on the bus basis, and much more.

Clinic continued its development process during Perestroyka times. In 1986 Intersectoral Research and Technology Complex “Eye Microsurgery” was created on the basis of Institute. The rights of IRTC were outstanding for those times. It had its own currency account; it received foreign patients, it was allowed to determine the number of employees and the amount of their salary, and also be engaged in some other sphere apart from medicine (agriculture for example). Fyodorov was actively building up new Branches along the country (11 Branches) and abroad (Italy, Poland, Germany, Spain, Yemen, UAE). For the first time an Ophthalmologic Clinic was equipped on a ship “Peter the Great” sailing in the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.

The Unique microsurgical technologies of Svyatoslav Fyodorov attracted patients from the whole world. Free management allowed to supply Clinic with most perfect machinery and equipment. Computers, ophthalmologic laser, unique instruments, which mostly were developed by IRTC specialists together with the best scientific Institutions of the country – all these resources became available for Russian patients of IRTC “Eye Microsurgery” System.

Svyatoslav Fyodorov proved that high-quality medical service might be profitable and serve to the health of millions of people at the same time. He also showed, that it is possible to materialize scientific discoveries, be economically successful and earn money in an honest way “with your own brain” in Russia. At Perestroyka times “Eye Microsurgery” was buying new equipment, doing scientific work, and was increasing salary for its employees.

Svyatoslav Fyodorov was a talented businessman, energetic administrator, prudent economist and owner. He had a systematic approach in solving economic and political problems. He was a People’s Deputy of USSR and Russia; he participated in activities of political parties, ran for President, and was offered to become a prime-minister. Still history remembers him as a brilliant scientist, whose scientific discoveries helped millions of people to recover their eyesight.

In April 1995 Svyatoslav Fyodorov was chosen a full member of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. He was also a corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, a full member of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, and several foreign Academies. He authored more than 180 inventions and was ranked as an “Honoured Inventor of the USSR”, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lomonosov Gold Medal Laureate (Russian Academy of Sciences), Paleolog Prize and Oscar Laureate (USA).

Fyodorov was very fond of horse riding, swimming and hunting. In 1972 he received a pilot certificate.

June 2, 2000 Svyatoslav Fyodorov tragically died in the sky, where he wanted to be all his life.

State Institution IRTC “Eye Microsurgery” continues to be one of the most trustworthy and well-known Russian Medical Institutions and bear the name of its talented founder.

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